Forgiving Sin

The present literary unit in Chapters 1 and 2 of the Gospel of Mark includes five stories that highlight the authority of Jesus as the “Son of Man.” Moreover, shows the growing conflicts between him and the religious authorities from Jerusalem, especially over issues of ritual purity and Sabbath regulations. There are parallels between the present story and the preceding one about the cleansing of the leper.

In both stories, Jesus deals with the heart of the problem. Rather than “heal,” he “cleanses” the leper. Rather than proclaim the paralytic “healed,” he declares his sins “discharged.”

In both stories, “cleansing” and the “discharge” of sins occur apart from the Temple and its rituals, and this explains the vigorous objection of the “scribes” to his words and deeds in Capernaum.

Leap - Photo by Joshua Earle on Unsplash
[Leap - Photo by Joshua Earle on Unsplash]

Thus, Jesus from the small village of Nazareth “
cleansed” impurities and “discharged” sins without resorting to the means provided in the Levitical code or traveling to the Temple in Jerusalem.

  • (Mark 2:1-5) – “And entering again into Capernaum, after some days it was heard say he is in a house. And many were gathered so that no longer was there room even in the approaches to the door, and he began speaking to them the word. And they come, bearing to him a paralytic carried by four men. And not being able to get near him by reason of the multitude they uncovered the roof where he was, and having broken it up, they began letting down the couch whereon the paralytic was lying. And Jesus, seeing their faith, saith to the paralytic: Child! Your sins are forgiven!” – (Parallel passages: Matthew 9:2-8, Luke 5:18-26).

The roof of the typical Judean house was flat and accessible by an outside staircase. It was constructed of thatch and mud that could easily be broken open. Mark attributes the actions of these men to their “faith.” Genuine faith is not abstract knowledge or emotions. It produces concrete actions and decisions.

Jesus told the paralytic that his sins were “forgiven” or “discharged.” The verb commonly rendered “forgive” in English translations is the same Greek word used elsewhere for “divorce” and the “discharging” of financial debts.

The point of contention in the story is not the miraculous healing, but the presumed authority of Jesus to discharge sins apart from the required Temple rituals. He does attribute all cases of disease to sin, and he does not blame this man’s condition on any offense done by him - (Mark 2:6-12).

In the narrative, the Scribes are offended because God alone can declare sins forgiven and the associated penalties discharged. Furthermore, Jesus did this apart from the Temple rituals and without the participation of the priests.

While the High Priest performed an act of national absolution on the annual Day of Atonement, not even he was authorized to proclaim an individual’s sins “forgiven.” The words of Jesus appear presumptuous to the men from Jerusalem, if not blasphemous.


In response, Jesus asked, which is easier, to say, “Your sins are forgiven are your sins,” or to command, “Rise and walk?” Both statements are easy to say, and both are impossible to do without the authority of God. Noteworthy is how he did not ask which was easier to do but which was easier “to say.”

It is far easier to proclaim the forgiveness of sins since no one can evaluate the validity of any such claim from observable evidence. To say the paralytic was “healed” was more difficult since verification was immediate and obvious. If Jesus demonstrated his authority to heal, it would validate his authority to proclaim the “forgiveness of sins.”

The Greek verb rendered “arise” is the same one used later for the “rising” of Jesus from the dead. The restoration of the body and the forgiveness of sin are related acts, two sides of the same coin. The “Son of Man” came to make the entire man whole so he could rise to walk in newness of life - (Mark 16:6, Romans 8:11, 2 Corinthians 5:16-17).

This is the first instance of the term “Son of Man” in the Gospel of Mark. Jesus did not say, “I have authority,” but that the “Son of Man has authority” to forgive sins.

The term "Son of Man" is the self-designation used most often by Jesus in the synoptic gospels. In his capacity as the “Son of Man,” he was authorized to “discharge” the debt of sins. The term is found first in the Hebrew Bible in Daniel:

  • (Daniel 7:13-14) - “I kept looking in the night visions, and behold, with the clouds of heaven One like a Son of Man was coming. And he approached the Ancient of Days and was presented before Him. And to him was given dominion, glory, and a kingdom that all the peoples, nations, and men of every language might serve him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which will not pass away, and his kingdom is one which will not be destroyed.”

By identifying himself as the “Son of Man,” Jesus indicated the source of his authority, the “Ancient of Days,” and his healings and exorcisms validated that identification.

By standing up and carrying his litter, the healed man proved Christ’s authority and the power of his “word.” By this healing, God authenticated his status as the Messiah and the “Son of Man” before the religious leaders of Israel.

Yet the priestly authorities would continue to reject him. In this account, the incident marks the start of the conflicts between Jesus and the priestly authorities from the Temple that would lead inevitably to his death.

  • Authority over Satan - (Jesus demonstrated his authority over Satan by driving his demonic  forces out of the children of Israel – Mark 1:21-28)
  • Authority over Ritual Purity - (The touch of Jesus cleansed a leper, and the forbidden physical contact did not render him unclean – Mark 1:40-45)
  • Son of Man - (The one like a Son of Man in Daniel is the source of Christ’s self-designation as the Son of Man and his authority to reign)



Salvation for the Nations

His Name is Jesus